mindblowingscience:

Coral organisms use minuscule appendages to control their environment, stirring up water eddies to bring nutrients

Conventional wisdom has long held that corals—whose calcium-carbonate skeletons form the foundation of coral reefs—are passive organisms that rely entirely on ocean currents to deliver dissolved substances, such as nutrients and oxygen. But now scientists at MIT and the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) in Israel have found that they are far from passive, engineering their environment to sweep water into turbulent patterns that greatly enhance their ability to exchange nutrients and dissolved gases with their environment.
"These microenvironmental processes are not only important, but also unexpected," says Roman Stocker, an associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at MIT and senior author of a paper describing the results in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
When the team set up their experiment with living coral in tanks in the lab, “I was expecting that this would be a smooth microworld, there would be not much action except the external flow,” Stocker says. Instead, what the researchers found, by zooming in on the coral surface with powerful microscopes and high-speed video cameras, was the opposite: Within the millimeter closest to the coral surface, “it’s very violent,” he says.
It’s long been known that corals have cilia, small threadlike appendages that can push water along the coral surface. However, these currents were previously assumed to move parallel to the coral surface, in a conveyor-belt fashion. Such smooth motion may help corals remove sediments, but would have little effect on the exchange of dissolved nutrients. Now Stocker and his colleagues show that the cilia on the coral’s surface are arranged in such a way as to produce strong swirls of water that draw nutrients toward the coral, while driving away potentially toxic waste products, such as excess oxygen.

Continue Reading.

mindblowingscience:

Coral organisms use minuscule appendages to control their environment, stirring up water eddies to bring nutrients

Conventional wisdom has long held that corals—whose calcium-carbonate skeletons form the foundation of coral reefs—are passive organisms that rely entirely on ocean currents to deliver dissolved substances, such as nutrients and oxygen. But now scientists at MIT and the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) in Israel have found that they are far from passive, engineering their environment to sweep water into turbulent patterns that greatly enhance their ability to exchange nutrients and dissolved gases with their environment.

"These microenvironmental processes are not only important, but also unexpected," says Roman Stocker, an associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at MIT and senior author of a paper describing the results in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

When the team set up their experiment with living coral in tanks in the lab, “I was expecting that this would be a smooth microworld, there would be not much action except the external flow,” Stocker says. Instead, what the researchers found, by zooming in on the coral surface with powerful microscopes and high-speed video cameras, was the opposite: Within the millimeter closest to the coral surface, “it’s very violent,” he says.

It’s long been known that corals have cilia, small threadlike appendages that can push water along the coral surface. However, these currents were previously assumed to move parallel to the coral surface, in a conveyor-belt fashion. Such smooth motion may help corals remove sediments, but would have little effect on the exchange of dissolved . Now Stocker and his colleagues show that the cilia on the coral’s surface are arranged in such a way as to produce strong swirls of water that draw nutrients toward the coral, while driving away potentially toxic waste products, such as excess oxygen.

Continue Reading.

(via shychemist)

marine science coral marine biology

girl-havoced:

I believe in free education, one that’s available to everyone; no matter their race, gender, age, wealth, etc… This masterpost was created for every knowledge hungry individual out there. I hope it will serve you well. Enjoy!
FREE ONLINE COURSES (here are listed websites that provide huge variety of courses)
Alison 
Coursera
FutureLearn
open2study
Khan Academy
edX
P2P U
Academic Earth
iversity
Stanford Online
MIT Open Courseware
Open Yale Courses
BBC Learning
OpenLearn
Carnegie Mellon University OLI
University of Reddit
Saylor
IDEAS, INSPIRATION & NEWS (websites which deliver educational content meant to entertain you and stimulate your brain)
TED
FORA
Big Think  
99u
BBC Future
Seriously Amazing
How Stuff Works
Discovery News
National Geographic
Science News
Popular Science
IFLScience
YouTube Edu
DIY & HOW-TO’S (Don’t know how to do that? Want to learn how to do it yourself? Here are some great websites.)
wikiHow
Wonder How To
instructables
eHow
Howcast
MAKE
Do it yourself
FREE TEXTBOOKS & E-BOOKS
OpenStax CNX
Open Textbooks
Bookboon
Textbook Revolution
E-books Directory
FullBooks
Books Should Be Free
Classic Reader
Read Print
Project Gutenberg
AudioBooks For Free
LibriVox
Poem Hunter
Bartleby
MIT Classics
Many Books
Open Textbooks BCcampus
Open Textbook Library
WikiBooks
SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES & JOURNALS
Directory of Open Access Journals
Scitable
PLOS
Wiley Open Access
Springer Open
Oxford Open
Elsevier Open Access
ArXiv
Open Access Library
LEARN:
1. LANGUAGES
Duolingo
BBC Languages
Learn A Language
101languages
Memrise
Livemocha
Foreign Services Institute
My Languages
Surface Languages
Lingualia
OmniGlot
OpenCulture’s Language links
2. COMPUTER SCIENCE & PROGRAMMING
Codecademy
Programmr
GA Dash
CodeHS
w3schools
Code Avengers
Codelearn
The Code Player
Code School
Code.org
Programming Motherf*?$%#
Bento
Bucky’s room
WiBit
Learn Code the Hard Way
Mozilla Developer Network
Microsoft Virtual Academy
3. YOGA & MEDITATION
Learning Yoga
Learn Meditation
Yome
Free Meditation
Online Meditation
Do Yoga With Me
Yoga Learning Center
4. PHOTOGRAPHY & FILMMAKING
Exposure Guide
The Bastards Book of Photography
Cambridge in Color
Best Photo Lessons
Photography Course
Production Now
nyvs
Learn About Film
Film School Online
5. DRAWING & PAINTING
Enliighten
Ctrl+Paint
ArtGraphica
Google Cultural Institute
Drawspace
DragoArt
WetCanvas
6. INSTRUMENTS & MUSIC THEORY
Music Theory
Teoria
Music Theory Videos
Furmanczyk Academy of Music
Dave Conservatoire
Petrucci Music Library
Justin Guitar
Guitar Lessons
Piano Lessons
Zebra Keys
Play Bass Now
7. OTHER UNCATEGORIZED SKILLS
Investopedia
The Chess Website
Chesscademy
Chess.com
Spreeder
ReadSpeeder
First Aid for Free
First Aid Web
Wolfram Demonstrations Project
Please feel free to add more learning focused websites. 
*There are a lot more learning websites out there, but I picked the ones that are, as far as I’m aware, completely free and in my opinion the best/ more useful.


Knowledge is power everyone!

girl-havoced:

I believe in free education, one that’s available to everyone; no matter their race, gender, age, wealth, etc… This masterpost was created for every knowledge hungry individual out there. I hope it will serve you well. Enjoy!

FREE ONLINE COURSES (here are listed websites that provide huge variety of courses)

IDEAS, INSPIRATION & NEWS (websites which deliver educational content meant to entertain you and stimulate your brain)

DIY & HOW-TO’S (Don’t know how to do that? Want to learn how to do it yourself? Here are some great websites.)

FREE TEXTBOOKS & E-BOOKS

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES & JOURNALS

LEARN:

1. LANGUAGES

2. COMPUTER SCIENCE & PROGRAMMING

3. YOGA & MEDITATION

4. PHOTOGRAPHY & FILMMAKING

5. DRAWING & PAINTING

6. INSTRUMENTS & MUSIC THEORY

7. OTHER UNCATEGORIZED SKILLS

Please feel free to add more learning focused websites. 

*There are a lot more learning websites out there, but I picked the ones that are, as far as I’m aware, completely free and in my opinion the best/ more useful.

Knowledge is power everyone!

(via tessaracked)

mindblowingscience:

Gut Microbes Take Over Your Body When You Die

You have around 100 trillion bacteria living in your gut — and that’s a good thing. Known as gut flora or the gut microbiome, these microorganisms help your body digest certain foods, aid the immune system, and maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract, all in exchange for a constant food supply.
But when you die, your friendly gut flora quickly become your gut foe. Without food, the microbes escape your GI tract through the circulatory system and spread to your other organs, feeding on your dying cells and colonizing your body.
Now, forensic experts are finding that this macabre Manifest Destiny may provide crucial clues about a corpse. According to New Scientist, Peter Noble and his research team at Alabama State University analyzed organ tissue samples from 11 cadavers, between one to 10 days after death. From the spreading bacteria’s genetic material, they were able to figure out how long it took for the gut microbes to reach other organs, and which species traveled where.
Apparently, there wasn’t much rhyme or reason to this microbial takeover:
Contrary to the team’s expectations, there was no predictable pattern of microbe distribution. This was a surprise, says Noble, as he had expected different microbes to thrive in different organs. For example, the team had thought that bile-tolerant species would flourish in the liver, whereas those adapted to iron-rich environments would do better in the spleen.
In fact, there was more variation between individuals and according to time since death than there was between the organs within a single cadaver (Journal of Microbiological Methods, doi.org/t6x).

However, these findings do hold some benefit, especially in the field of forensics. Knowing how gut bacteria swarm throughout the body post mortem can reveal a body’s time of death or where the body has been lying, as the environment surrounding the body at death can have a significant effect on the spread of gut microbes. If a body has been moved to a second location after death, the bacteria of the internal organs can indicate where the person was originally killed. So, after you die, your gut microbiome is still working for you.


The more we learn about microbial ecology, the more we learn that microbes are more flexible than we think they are. Probably why they manage to do so well.

mindblowingscience:

Gut Microbes Take Over Your Body When You Die

You have around 100 trillion bacteria living in your gut — and that’s a good thing. Known as gut flora or the gut microbiome, these microorganisms help your body digest certain foods, aid the immune system, and maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract, all in exchange for a constant food supply.

But when you die, your friendly gut flora quickly become your gut foe. Without food, the microbes escape your GI tract through the circulatory system and spread to your other organs, feeding on your dying cells and colonizing your body.

Now, forensic experts are finding that this macabre Manifest Destiny may provide crucial clues about a corpse. According to New Scientist, Peter Noble and his research team at Alabama State University analyzed organ tissue samples from 11 cadavers, between one to 10 days after death. From the spreading bacteria’s genetic material, they were able to figure out how long it took for the gut microbes to reach other organs, and which species traveled where.

Apparently, there wasn’t much rhyme or reason to this microbial takeover:

Contrary to the team’s expectations, there was no predictable pattern of microbe distribution. This was a surprise, says Noble, as he had expected different microbes to thrive in different organs. For example, the team had thought that bile-tolerant species would flourish in the liver, whereas those adapted to iron-rich environments would do better in the spleen.

In fact, there was more variation between individuals and according to time since death than there was between the organs within a single cadaver (Journal of Microbiological Methods, doi.org/t6x).

However, these findings do hold some benefit, especially in the field of forensics. Knowing how gut bacteria swarm throughout the body post mortem can reveal a body’s time of death or where the body has been lying, as the environment surrounding the body at death can have a significant effect on the spread of gut microbes. If a body has been moved to a second location after death, the bacteria of the internal organs can indicate where the person was originally killed. So, after you die, your gut microbiome is still working for you.

The more we learn about microbial ecology, the more we learn that microbes are more flexible than we think they are. Probably why they manage to do so well.

(via shychemist)

microbiology microbial ecology forensics

The evolution and future of carbonate precipitation in marine invertebrates: Witnessing extinction or documenting resilience in the Anthropocene?

climateadaptation:

Abstract

Morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the ability to precipitate carbonates evolved several times in marine invertebrates in the past 600 million years. Over the past decade, there has been a profusion of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses of calcifying representatives from three metazoan phyla: Cnidaria, Echinodermata, and Mollusca. Based on this information, we compared proteins intimately associated with precipitated calcium carbonate in these three phyla. Specifically, we used a cluster analysis and gene ontology approach to compare ~1500 proteins, from over 100 studies, extracted from calcium carbonates in stony corals, in bivalve and gastropod mollusks, and in adult and larval sea urchins to identify common motifs and differences. Our analysis suggests that there are few sequence similarities across all three phyla, supporting the independent evolution of biomineralization.

However, there are core sets of conserved motifs in all three phyla we examined. These motifs include acidic proteins that appear to be responsible for the nucleation reaction as well as inhibition; structural and adhesion proteins that determine spatial patterning; and signaling proteins that modify enzymatic activities. Based on this analysis and the fossil record, we propose that biomineralization is an extremely robust and highly controlled process in metazoans that can withstand extremes in pH predicted for the coming century, similar to their persistence through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

- See more at: http://elementascience.org

Labor day reading…

Not my usual area of interest, but I do love a bit of paleontology.

(via hemipelagicdredger)

ehmeegee:

learnhowtoadult:

In which Emily Graslie, the brilliant and wonderful host of The Brain Scoop, fills you in on how to land your dream job!

There are no magical formulas for landing your dream job, and it’s very possible in another universe I would have never stumbled into the Museum in Montana and instead I would have married my college boyfriend and been a struggling landscape artist and would have been okay with my life. But I knew at some point in all of it that the life I was envisioning for myself wasn’t what I wanted, and thus started a desperate search for the job of my dreams. 

3 years later I’m typing this from my chemistry lab-turned office at The Field Museum, surrounded by enough love and support and discovery to fill several lifetimes - and if there’s one thing I advocate for it’s taking your own destiny by the horns and leading it to where you want to go, so you can feel the same way I do. 

I hope you find this video useful, too. I’m really glad Mike and Emma asked me to write this script and let me host on their channel - I’m a big fan of the work they do and have a ton of respect for both of them as brilliant, well-adjusted adults, and I hope I can be as cool as they are when I grow up. 

emilie graslie The Brain Scoop learnhowtoadult ehmeegee grad school academia research

lemisscus:

sapphire-eyes:

chemicall-timelowmance:

quiet-dominant:

submissivefeminist:

wearethefracturedskies:

okay
today i wore a v-neck to school, something that is totally normal for 99% of the girls there, one of the girls in my french class was wearing one similar to mine in fact.
but my french teacher came up to me and told me that i was out of dress code and that i was asking for something to happen to me.
and all day long i had to slap guys who found it perfectly okay to grab them.
im a 32DDD, 5’1, and 115 pounds. due to this im known around the school as the walking boobs, the girl who grew in other places, and BITS. I constantly get called a whore and a tease. 
Girls are always accusing their boyfriends of sleeping with me.
and there have been times when i have had to tell teachers that my eyes are up here.
i grew boobs in the eighth grade, i was a DD then, and i cant tell you how many fights i got into with guys who thought it was alright to stick their faces in them. 
the point of all of this is that its bullshit. 
i should be able to wear a v neck to school without worrying about who is going to grab my boobs next, or who is going to throw a gum wrapper in them, or what girls are going to say next.

Fuck that shit! I would report any teacher that needs to be reminded not to stare at your chest. That is not okay in any sense.
Also, I’d say screw slut-shaming, but this isn’t even a matter of dressing how one wants, but a matter of a woman’s natural state being the reason that men think it’s okay to sexual harass or assault her.
Large breasts are not an invitation.
Large breasts are not an invitation.
LARGE BREASTS ARE NOT AN INVITATION.
Are we clear?
xx SF

Reblog and Amplify.

I had to reblog this because she’s not even showing that much cleavage. But she’s totally right. Large breasts are NOT AN INVITATION.

I had this same fucking problem.

Preach. I had a professor fail me, which meant I had to take HIS class again because I refused to sleep with him and he kept talking about and staring at my breasts. Fucking hell it is ridiculous. Ex boyfriends would tell me that they would describe me to their friends as a 6’ blonde with DDD’s. Not an educated, talented, and hard-working individual, but some girl with big boobs and another check off their list. 

I had similar problems in school (though maybe not as bad as the OP’s), but because of my butt. I got unwelcome comments, got pinched/grabbed, even had a female teacher tell me not to wear a certain pair of pants. It’s my butt, people. I didn’t grow it extra big to provoke you.

lemisscus:

sapphire-eyes:

chemicall-timelowmance:

quiet-dominant:

submissivefeminist:

wearethefracturedskies:

okay

today i wore a v-neck to school, something that is totally normal for 99% of the girls there, one of the girls in my french class was wearing one similar to mine in fact.

but my french teacher came up to me and told me that i was out of dress code and that i was asking for something to happen to me.

and all day long i had to slap guys who found it perfectly okay to grab them.

im a 32DDD, 5’1, and 115 pounds. due to this im known around the school as the walking boobs, the girl who grew in other places, and BITS. I constantly get called a whore and a tease. 

Girls are always accusing their boyfriends of sleeping with me.

and there have been times when i have had to tell teachers that my eyes are up here.

i grew boobs in the eighth grade, i was a DD then, and i cant tell you how many fights i got into with guys who thought it was alright to stick their faces in them. 

the point of all of this is that its bullshit. 

i should be able to wear a v neck to school without worrying about who is going to grab my boobs next, or who is going to throw a gum wrapper in them, or what girls are going to say next.

Fuck that shit! I would report any teacher that needs to be reminded not to stare at your chest. That is not okay in any sense.

Also, I’d say screw slut-shaming, but this isn’t even a matter of dressing how one wants, but a matter of a woman’s natural state being the reason that men think it’s okay to sexual harass or assault her.

  • Large breasts are not an invitation.
  • Large breasts are not an invitation.
  • LARGE BREASTS ARE NOT AN INVITATION.

Are we clear?

xx SF

Reblog and Amplify.

I had to reblog this because she’s not even showing that much cleavage. But she’s totally right. Large breasts are NOT AN INVITATION.

I had this same fucking problem.

Preach. I had a professor fail me, which meant I had to take HIS class again because I refused to sleep with him and he kept talking about and staring at my breasts. Fucking hell it is ridiculous. Ex boyfriends would tell me that they would describe me to their friends as a 6’ blonde with DDD’s. Not an educated, talented, and hard-working individual, but some girl with big boobs and another check off their list. 

I had similar problems in school (though maybe not as bad as the OP’s), but because of my butt. I got unwelcome comments, got pinched/grabbed, even had a female teacher tell me not to wear a certain pair of pants. It’s my butt, people. I didn’t grow it extra big to provoke you.

(Source: maybejustalittleemo, via nonlinearfluctuations)

skunkandburningtires:

James Lopez is a veteran Disney animator (The Lion King, Pocahontas, Paperman) who is trying to raise funding for his primarily hand-drawn short film, Hullabaloo, with hopes of eventually finding a studio to fund a full-length version.

From the film’s IndieGo page:

Hullabaloo is the story of Veronica Daring, a brilliant young scientist who returns home from an elite finishing school to find her father—the eccentric inventor Jonathan Daring—missing without a trace! The only clue left behind points Veronica toward Daring Adventures, an abandoned amusement park used by her father to test his fantastical steam-powered inventions. There she discovers a strange girl named Jules, a fellow inventor who agrees to help Veronica in locating her missing father and discovering the secrets of his work.

In addition to helping save 2D animation, Hullabaloo aims to encourage girls to explore science and adventure. The film’s two protagonists are both young women and both scientists who use their intellect, wits, and courage to fight greed and corruption. We hope that Veronica Daring and her friend Jules will serve as positive role models for girls of all ages and encourage them to get excited about science, engineering, and sci-fi.

To see some footage and a short video pitch from Lopez, click here.

(via scientistsarepeopletoo)

hullabaloo animation women in stem women in science

"When I read them, I felt a tingle down my legs as my endocrine glands pumped fight-or-flight hormones into my quadriceps. I became physiologically prepared to run away from the university. Do you ever feel that way at your desk? When you read a paper that contradicts your findings? When you get a proposal rejected? Do the small disappointments of our calling threaten you viscerally, like a hunted animal who has recognized the smell of her predator? Could your career come apart like a sweater unraveling, one that you have knitted all of your life? No. Supposedly mine can’t either. But I feel as if it could."
-

La Clé de la Sirène: Thursday Night Dear Colleague Letter  

Hope Jahren, full tenured professor at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, talks about a rude email she accidentally received from a colleague, and how it made her feel. (The email was supposed to go to the department chair, and it said some very unkind- and unwarranted- things about Dr. Jahren.)
As much as it pains me that Dr. Jahren experienced this kind of disrespect, it’s also encouraging to know that there are women in science with her bravery and grace. Even when surrounded by the evidence of our success, we are often made to feel like we don’t belong. And that is when we dig in our heels, refuse to budge, and say, “Yes we do.”

There are people in science who don’t feel this?

(via hemipelagicdredger)

I don’t know. I always assumed that there were, but maybe we are all just very good at playing cool.

(via hemipelagicdredger)